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کشاورز ایرانی (مرکز ارائه خدمات جامع آموزش کشاورزی) - مطالب اردیبهشت 1391

کشاورز ایرانی (مرکز ارائه خدمات جامع آموزش کشاورزی)

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یکشنبه 31 اردیبهشت 1391

Best Management Practices For Strawberries

نویسنده: مهندس علیرضا شعاعی   طبقه بندی: گلخانه، سایر، میوه کاری، باغداری، 

Best Management Practices
For
Strawberries

Best Management Practices are the best recommended practices for growing a specified crop.  These recommended practices are based on research and experience and apply to the specified crop under the specified conditions.  These recommended BMPs are not the only way to grow a crop but are the best way determined by the author of the BMP.  The BMP may change as additional research becomes available.

Author:  Omar Zeidan, Head of Vegetable Department, Extension Service, Ministry of Agriculture

Best Management Practices for growing:  Strawberries

Steps

Recommendations

1.   Varieties

328 - Early production
329 - Medium production
Osogrande - Late production

2.   Seedling preparation

Self-nursery or in commercial nursery.

Mother plants must be prepared and ordered in January to transplant in April.

Mother plants must be free of diseases, preferably produced in a meristem nursery.

3.   Planting date

End of September and beginning of October, depending on variety.

4.   Field preparation

Use suitable sandy and light soils for strawberry production.
Plow soil to depth of 40-50 cm.
Sterilize soil by methyl bromide, 50 kg per dunam.
Establish seed beds, height 15-20 cm.
Seed beds spaced 115 cm apart. Plant spacing in the row is 50 cm.

5.   Pre-plant fertilizer

The following must be supplied through soil preparation:
Organic matter, 5-6 m3/dunam
Super phosphate, 100-150 kg/dunam
Potassium chloride, 50-100 kg/dunam

6.   Pre-planting herbicide

Before planting, spray Ronstar or Goal herbicide on the seed beds to avoid seed weed germination.  After spraying, supply 15-20 m3/water per dunnam to leach the chemicals into the soil by using microsprinklers.

7.   Plant space

Per one seed bed, 4 rows of  plants, allowing 25 cm between rows. Allow 25-27 cm between plants in the row.  In general, the number of plants per dunam is about 8,500-9,000 plants.

8.   Post-planting nutrition

Use complete fertilizer N:P:K* with microelements like 5:3:8 or 7:3:7.  Start with one liter per day/dunam, increasing to 2 liters per day/dunam in season.

9.   Irrigation schedule

Irrigation can be controlled by tensiometers according to daily evaporation. After establishing the plants, it was found that the daily amount of water needed to plant is according to the following schedule:

October      2.0 m3/day/dunam
November  1.6 m3/day/dunam
December  1.0 m3/day/dunam
January      1.0 m3/day/dunam
February    1.5 m3/day/dunam
March        1.7 m3/day/dunam
April          2.8 m3/day/dunam
May           4.0 m3/day/dunam

10. Disease monitoring

It is important that strawberries have good ventilation to avoid diseases. Open the plastic tunnel at every opportunity. Keep the plastic closed only on rainy days.

11. Main diseases

Leaf spots - ramolaria, botrytis, seclorotina

12. Main insects

Spider mites, thrips, aphids, caterpillars

13. Harvesting

Pick strawberries every 2-3 days.
Pick strawberries carefully by hand to avoid injury of the fruit. Harvesting is continuous for 5-6 months, normally beginning in December until the end of May.

14. Storage

Strawberry fruit is very sensitive; it needs to be marketed immediately after picking. It can be stored at 4°C for a few days.

15. Additional information

Use plastic mulching over the seed beds to have clean fruits:
- To avoid high humidity in the tunnels
- To reduce the incidence of botrytis
- Use colored plastic for mulching, preferably shiny plastic. If there is danger of seed weed germination, use black plastic for mulching.

*KEY:

N:P:K     Nitrogen:Phosphorus:Potassium

 

مشخصات: اسم علمی گیاه نگونسار Cyclamen persicum ، از خانواده Primulaceae می باشد. این جنس دارای ۱۵ گونه مختلف از گیاهان غده دار است که به صورت وحشی در کشورها و جزایر مدیترانه ای یافت می شود. گونه موردنظر ما، بومی کشورهای شرقی مدیترانه ای و ایران است. ارتفاع آن به ۱۵ تا ۲۵ سانتی متر می رسد. گلهای آن معمولا در اوایل بهار ظاره می شوند. سیکلامن برگهای کروی، قلمی شک و سبز تیره دارد. در بعضی واریته ها لکه های سفید رنگ روی برگها به چشم می خورد. گلهای معطری به طول ۵/۲ تا ۳ سانتی متر و به رنگ صورتی، قرمز، ارغوانی و سفید دارد.

مراقبت: این گیاه به نور متوسط، هوای خنک تا کمی گرم، خاک همیشه خیس، رطوبت هوای عادی وخاک کمی اسیدی، احتیاج دارد.

کود: کود مورد نیاز گیاه نگونسار را میتوان به میزان ۳ گرم در لیتر ، هر هفته یکبار در تابستان و دو هفته یکبار در زمستان مورداستفاده قرار داد.

خاک: مخلوطی از خاک برگ و ماسه برای رشد این گیاه مناسب است.

ازدیاد: تکثیر سیکلامن، نیاز به تحمل سختی فراوان دارد. اگر بذرهای این گیاه را در آخر تابستان بکارید در اواخر پاییز و اوایل دی ماه سال آینده گل خواهد داد. و یا هر زمانی از اواخر بهار تا تابستان اقدام به کاشت بذر کنید، تقریبا ۱۵ ماه بعد به گل خواهد نشست. بذرها را در سینی بذر یا ظرف کم عمق ، حاوی کمپوست مخصوص بذر و قلمه بکارید. و به آرامی روی آنها را بپوشانید و دمارا ۱۸ تا ۲۰ درجه سانتیگراد نگاه دارید تا شروع به روییدن کنند. بذرها باید در تاریکی بمانند و جوانه ها باید یک جور و یک اندازه باشند. به محض رویش جوانه ها آنها را در شرایط سیکلامن از هوای خفه و مرطوب متنفر است.


جمعه 1 اردیبهشت 1391

Cut Flowers and Foliage

نویسنده: مهندس علیرضا شعاعی   طبقه بندی: باغداری، میوه کاری، سایر، فضای سبز و گیاهان زینتی، 


Florist’s bouquets often look exotic and extraordinary.  So it may be surprising to learn that top class stems are already being grown commercially in Northern Ireland.  A wide range of protected and outdoor flower/foliage crops are produced here including Alstromeria, Calla lilies, oriental lilies, Stock and Sweet William.  Leaf and berry subjects such as Eucalyptus, Hypericum and Rhododendron are also professionally grown for cutting.  But why is there such potential with local flowers and foliage?  There are a number of competitive advantages:
Price stability
Fresh harvest
Extended vase life
Grown to buyers’ requirements
No ‘air miles’ to reach the market
Low carbon footprint
In fact, a number of Northern Ireland growers received high praise for their produce at the Royal Horticultural Society Tatton Park Flower show in July ‘08.  The theme of the Society of Floristry competition was ‘Best of British’ with material grown by British businesses. Five Northern Ireland growers provided a range of flowers and foliage for use in arrangements.  Elaine Chapman of DARD’s Supply Chain Branch told me of the judges’ reactions:  “Comments were so favourable, with the chief judge saying our flowers were wonderful, in pristine condition and much admired by everyone.  This illustrates how growers can exploit the local angle in the provision of quality flowers and foliage.  But it’s vital that anyone considering this as a business venture should identify the market opportunities first.”
For protected flower crops (using glasshouses or polytunnels) the temperate local climate provides excellent conditions for steady growth and uniform flower development.  David Davidson, Cut Flower Development Adviser, explains which crops are most suited for the conditions and facilities available:  “Fungal diseases such as Botrytis and Downy Mildew can be particularly problematic in a season such as we had this year.  Growers must give careful thought to natural ventilation and good air circulation.”  Growers can also discuss the most appropriate crop protection programmes with David, to anticipate and avoid such problems.  He provides guidance on schedules, costings and crop culture for the various protected and field flowers grown.
Anyone interested in production of cut flowers is welcome to contact David 028 3751 5605 or me for further information. 
Top Fruit
This season has seen a number of orchards showing minor nutritional imbalances, particularly for the trace nutrients magnesium, potassium and manganese, which aren’t part of most sown fertilisers. This is where foliar nutrition has been of great value.  They have supported the crop through periods of stress particularly on account of prolonged wet weather in August.  
For almost all orchards, there will be issues of depleted potassium (K) in soils, following our exceptional rainfall levels and another plentiful year for Bramley.  Potassium is one of the most heavily required nutrients for apples and can be leached out in wet weather, so your K index is likely to be very low.  Potassium is also critical for bud and blossom quality for next year.  
If it is more than three years since your last soil test, I would recommend that you test this winter as it will establish the current pH value and levels of major nutrients available to your trees.  The pH of the soil inevitably decreases where lime is not applied annually and when successive, large crops are produced (2006 – 2008).  This fall in pH will reduce the availability of major and minor (trace) nutrients.  Soil pH must be corrected according to the results of the analysis to optimise soil fertility and orchard productivity.  Poor soil fertility not only reduces yield potential and fruit quality, but can lead to increased problems with respect to general tree health.
Guidelines on correct soil-sampling technique, soil analysis and interpretation of results are available.  Samples are best taken during the winter and early spring, ahead of the new growing season.

جمعه 1 اردیبهشت 1391

Winter hardiness of deciduous fruit trees

نویسنده: مهندس علیرضا شعاعی   طبقه بندی: باغداری، میوه کاری، فیزیو لوژی، 



On an average of every eight years, winter temperatures in Washington drop to a level low enough to cause severe damage to fruit trees. Almost every year phenomena occur in combination with low temperatures that cause localized damage to fruit trees. To better understand and alleviate the problem of winter injury, the research center has used several different approaches.

Various cultural practices such as manipulating nitrogen fertilizer application and irrigation practices can increase freeze resistance of fruit trees. However, any change in cultural practices that favors an increase in winter hardiness results in a less efficient tree in terms of growth and productivity.

A few guidelines that have been determined which are not detrimental to the productivity of the tree are the following:
do not apply nitrogen fertilizer from mid-June until after vegetative maturity in the early autumn 
make sure soil moisture is at field capacity going into the winter
do not let the trees come under moisture stress in the summer and then apply water to break the stress before vegetative maturity
Cryoprotectant chemicals and certain manipulation of hormones will increase freeze resistance in fruit trees. The application of these is so precise and dependent on weather conditions that any variance in application or misinterpretation of the weather will result in adverse effects on the trees.

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